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Table of Contents

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

Form 10-Q

(Mark One)

 

 

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020

or

 

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                  to                 

Commission file number: 1-34283

 

Rosetta Stone Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware

(State of incorporation)

 

04-3837082

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

 

1621 North Kent Street, Suite 1200

Arlington, Virginia

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

22209

(Zip Code)

703-387-5800

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

N/A

(Former name or former address, if changed since last report)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes    No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes    No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

Smaller reporting company 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

 

 (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

 

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.     

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes    No 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, par value $0.00005 per share

RST

New York Stock Exchange

 

Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer’s classes of stock, as of the latest practicable date.

As of April 29, 2020, there were 24,576,366 shares of the registrant’s Common Stock, $.00005 par value, outstanding.

 

 

 


 

ROSETTA STONE INC.

 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

Page

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

Item 1

Financial Statements (unaudited)

3

Item 2

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

32

Item 3

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

43

Item 4

Controls and Procedures

43

PART II. OTHER INFORMATION

 

Item 1

Legal Proceedings

44

Item 1A

Risk Factors

44

Item 2

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

58

Item 3

Defaults Upon Senior Securities

58

Item 4

Mine Safety Disclosures

58

Item 5

Other Information

58

Item 6

Exhibits

59

Signatures

 

60

 

 

2


Table of Contents

 

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1.  Financial Statements

ROSETTA STONE INC.

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

(in thousands, except per share amounts)

(unaudited)

 

 

 

As of

 

 

 

March 31, 2020

 

 

December 31, 2019

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

35,122

 

 

$

43,010

 

Restricted cash

 

 

49

 

 

 

54

 

Accounts receivable (net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $725 and $510 at March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively)

 

 

15,391

 

 

 

22,919

 

Inventory

 

 

1,377

 

 

 

1,545

 

Deferred sales commissions

 

 

10,264

 

 

 

11,558

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

3,905

 

 

 

4,172

 

Total current assets

 

 

66,108

 

 

 

83,258

 

Deferred sales commissions

 

 

7,379

 

 

 

7,682

 

Property and equipment, net

 

 

39,124

 

 

 

39,251

 

Operating lease right-of-use assets

 

 

5,399

 

 

 

5,818

 

Intangible assets, net

 

 

13,936

 

 

 

14,317

 

Goodwill

 

 

48,807

 

 

 

48,958

 

Other assets

 

 

1,855

 

 

 

1,823

 

Total assets

 

$

182,608

 

 

$

201,107

 

Liabilities and stockholders' deficit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

 

$

6,831

 

 

$

7,534

 

Accrued compensation

 

 

10,955

 

 

 

9,854

 

Income tax payable

 

 

150

 

 

 

78

 

Operating lease liabilities

 

 

1,425

 

 

 

1,455

 

Other current liabilities

 

 

10,979

 

 

 

13,090

 

Deferred revenue

 

 

105,969

 

 

 

119,851

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

136,309

 

 

 

151,862

 

Deferred revenue

 

 

58,036

 

 

 

57,766

 

Deferred income taxes

 

 

2,635

 

 

 

2,590

 

Operating lease liabilities

 

 

3,831

 

 

 

4,167

 

Other long-term liabilities

 

 

786

 

 

 

914

 

Total liabilities

 

 

201,597

 

 

 

217,299

 

Commitments and contingencies (Note 11)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders' deficit:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preferred stock, $0.001 par value; 10,000 and 10,000 shares authorized, zero and zero shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Non-designated common stock, $0.00005 par value, 190,000 and 190,000 shares authorized, 25,580 and 25,060 shares issued, and 24,580 and 24,060 shares outstanding, at March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively)

 

 

2

 

 

 

2

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

214,208

 

 

 

210,846

 

Treasury stock, at cost; 1,000 and 1,000 shares at March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively)

 

 

(11,435

)

 

 

(11,435

)

Accumulated loss

 

 

(218,654

)

 

 

(212,548

)

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

 

 

(3,110

)

 

 

(3,057

)

Total stockholders' deficit

 

 

(18,989

)

 

 

(16,192

)

Total liabilities and stockholders' deficit

 

$

182,608

 

 

$

201,107

 

 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements

3


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ROSETTA STONE INC.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

(in thousands, except per share amounts)

(unaudited)

 

 

 

Three months ended March 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Revenue

 

$

47,179

 

 

$

44,611

 

Cost of revenue

 

 

11,101

 

 

 

8,426

 

Gross profit

 

 

36,078

 

 

 

36,185

 

Operating expenses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sales and marketing

 

 

25,434

 

 

 

23,238

 

Research and development

 

 

6,917

 

 

 

5,738

 

General and administrative

 

 

9,562

 

 

 

8,692

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

41,913

 

 

 

37,668

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(5,835

)

 

 

(1,483

)

Other income and (expense):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest income

 

 

16

 

 

 

33

 

Interest expense

 

 

(53

)

 

 

(60

)

Other income and (expense)

 

 

71

 

 

 

796

 

Total other income and (expense)

 

 

34

 

 

 

769

 

Loss before income taxes

 

 

(5,801

)

 

 

(714

)

Income tax expense (benefit)

 

 

380

 

 

 

(170

)

Net loss

 

$

(6,181

)

 

$

(544

)

Loss per share:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

$

(0.26

)

 

$

(0.02

)

Diluted

 

$

(0.26

)

 

$

(0.02

)

Common shares and equivalents outstanding:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic weighted average shares

 

 

23,803

 

 

 

23,036

 

Diluted weighted average shares

 

 

23,803

 

 

 

23,036

 

 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements

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ROSETTA STONE INC.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS

(in thousands)

(unaudited)

 

 

 

Three months ended March 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Net loss

 

$

(6,181

)

 

$

(544

)

Other comprehensive loss, net of tax:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Foreign currency translation (loss) gain

 

 

(53

)

 

 

213

 

Other comprehensive (loss) income

 

 

(53

)

 

 

213

 

Comprehensive loss

 

$

(6,234

)

 

$

(331

)

 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements

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Table of Contents

 

ROSETTA STONE INC.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

(in thousands)

(unaudited)

 

 

 

Three months ended March 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(6,181

)

 

$

(544

)

Non-cash adjustments to reconcile net loss to cash used in operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

 

2,261

 

 

 

1,220

 

Loss on foreign currency transactions

 

 

22

 

 

 

708

 

Bad debt expense (recovery)

 

 

258

 

 

 

(13

)

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

4,420

 

 

 

3,529

 

Operating lease costs

 

 

535

 

 

 

526

 

Deferred income tax expense (benefit)

 

 

115

 

 

 

(592

)

Gain loss on disposal or sale of assets

 

 

 

 

 

(1,395

)

Amortization of deferred financing costs

 

 

19

 

 

 

14

 

Net change in:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts receivable

 

 

7,082

 

 

 

8,237

 

Inventory

 

 

168

 

 

 

(829

)

Deferred sales commissions

 

 

1,579

 

 

 

1,997

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

197

 

 

 

(789

)

Income tax receivable or payable

 

 

71

 

 

 

271

 

Other assets

 

 

(71

)

 

 

144

 

Accounts payable

 

 

(685

)

 

 

(1,595

)

Accrued compensation

 

 

2,178

 

 

 

2,441

 

Other current liabilities

 

 

(1,934

)

 

 

(2,622

)

Operating lease liabilities

 

 

(478

)

 

 

(544

)

Other long-term liabilities

 

 

 

 

 

(31

)

Deferred revenue

 

 

(13,038

)

 

 

(16,700

)

Net cash used in operating activities

 

 

(3,482

)

 

 

(6,567

)

CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purchases of property and equipment

 

 

(3,786

)

 

 

(4,714

)

Proceeds from sale of assets

 

 

 

 

 

996

 

Net cash used in investing activities

 

 

(3,786

)

 

 

(3,718

)

CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from the exercise of stock options

 

 

42

 

 

 

744

 

Payment of deferred financing costs

 

 

(66

)

 

 

(2

)

Payments under financing lease liabilities

 

 

(115

)

 

 

(110

)

Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities

 

 

(139

)

 

 

632

 

Decrease in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash

 

 

(7,407

)

 

 

(9,653

)

Effect of exchange rate changes in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash

 

 

(486

)

 

 

(180

)

Net decrease in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash

 

 

(7,893

)

 

 

(9,833

)

Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash—beginning of period

 

 

43,064

 

 

 

38,174

 

Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash—end of period

 

$

35,171

 

 

$

28,341

 

SUPPLEMENTAL CASH FLOW DISCLOSURE:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash paid during the periods for:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest

 

$

34

 

 

$

46

 

Income taxes, net of refund

 

$

207

 

 

$

258

 

Noncash operating, investing and financing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating right-of-use assets obtained in exchange for operating lease liabilities

 

$

59

 

 

$

656

 

Financing right-of-use assets obtained in exchange for financing lease liabilities

 

$

 

 

$

 

Accrued liability for purchase of property and equipment

 

$

1,126

 

 

$

1,033

 

 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements

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ROSETTA STONE INC.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS' DEFICIT

(unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accumulated

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Non-Designated

 

 

Additional

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other

 

 

Total

 

 

 

Common Stock

 

 

Paid-in

 

 

Treasury

 

 

Accumulated

 

 

Comprehensive

 

 

Stockholders'

 

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Capital

 

 

Stock

 

 

Loss

 

 

Loss

 

 

Deficit

 

Balance—January 1, 2020

 

 

23,667

 

 

$

2

 

 

$

210,846

 

 

$

(11,435

)

 

$

(212,548

)

 

$

(3,057

)

 

$

(16,192

)

Stock issued upon the exercise of stock options

 

 

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

42

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

42

 

Restricted stock award and performance stock unit vesting

 

 

299

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unrestricted common stock issued in lieu of cash bonus

 

 

68

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,322

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,322

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,998

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,998

 

Net loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(6,181

)

 

 

 

 

 

(6,181

)

Cumulative effect adjustment - adoption of CECL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

75

 

 

 

 

 

 

75

 

Other comprehensive loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(53

)

 

 

(53

)

Balance—March 31, 2020

 

 

24,040

 

 

$

2

 

 

$

214,208

 

 

$

(11,435

)

 

$

(218,654

)

 

$

(3,110

)

 

$

(18,989

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accumulated

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Non-Designated

 

 

Additional

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other

 

 

Total

 

 

 

Common Stock

 

 

Paid-in

 

 

Treasury

 

 

Accumulated

 

 

Comprehensive

 

 

Stockholders'

 

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Capital

 

 

Stock

 

 

Loss

 

 

Loss

 

 

Deficit

 

Balance—January 1, 2019

 

 

22,912

 

 

$

2

 

 

$

202,355

 

 

$

(11,435

)

 

$

(199,592

)

 

$

(3,338

)

 

$

(12,008

)

Stock issued upon the exercise of stock options

 

 

67

 

 

 

 

 

 

744

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

744

 

Restricted stock award and performance stock unit vesting

 

 

270

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unrestricted common stock issued in lieu of cash bonus

 

 

37

 

 

 

 

 

 

576

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

576

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,220

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,220

 

Net loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(544

)

 

 

 

 

 

(544

)

Other comprehensive income

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

213

 

 

 

213

 

Balance—March 31, 2019

 

 

23,286

 

 

$

2

 

 

$

204,895

 

 

$

(11,435

)

 

$

(200,136

)

 

$

(3,125

)

 

$

(9,799

)

 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements

 

 

7


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ROSETTA STONE INC.

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)

 

1. NATURE OF OPERATIONS

Rosetta Stone Inc. and its subsidiaries ("Rosetta Stone," or the "Company") develop, market and support a suite of language-learning and literacy solutions consisting of web-based software subscriptions, online services, professional services, and mobile applications. The Company's offerings are sold on a direct basis and through select third party retailers and distributors. The Company provides its solutions to customers domestically and in certain international markets.  

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic continues to unfold. The extent of the pandemic’s effect on the Company depends on future developments which cannot be predicted at this time. Future developments include the duration, scope and severity of the pandemic, the actions taken to contain or mitigate its impact, the impact on governmental programs and budgets, the development of treatments or vaccines, and the resumption of widespread economic activity. These uncertainties have been considered in the development of these financial statements and the notes thereto. See “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for more information about the Company’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Principles of Consolidation

The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Rosetta Stone Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

Basis of Presentation

The accompanying consolidated financial statements are unaudited. These unaudited interim consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP") and applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") regarding interim financial reporting. Certain information and note disclosures normally included in the financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. Accordingly, these interim consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto contained in the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 11, 2020. The March 31, 2020 consolidated balance sheet included herein includes account balances as of December 31, 2019 that were derived from the audited financial statements as of that date. The Consolidated Financial Statements and the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements do not include all disclosures required for annual financial statements and notes.

The unaudited interim consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited consolidated financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, necessary for the fair presentation of the Company’s statements of financial position at March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, the Company’s results of operations and stockholders’ equity activity for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, and its cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and March 31, 2019 have been made. The results for the three months ended March 31, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the year ending December 31, 2020. All references to March 31, 2020 or to the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 in the notes to the consolidated financial statements are unaudited.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions. The amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements include significant estimates and assumptions that have been made, including, but not limited to, those related to revenue recognition, allowance for doubtful accounts, estimated sales returns and reserves, stock-based compensation, fair value of intangibles and goodwill, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent litigation, allowance for valuation of deferred tax assets, and the Company's quarterly going concern assessment. The Company bases its estimates and assumptions on historical experience and on various other judgments that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. The Company continuously evaluates its estimates and assumptions. Actual results may differ from these estimates and assumptions.

 

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ROSETTA STONE INC.

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)

 

Recently Issued Accounting Standards

Accounting Standards Adopted During the Period: During 2020, the Company adopted the following recently issued Accounting Standard Updates ("ASU"):

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments ("ASU 2016-13"), as subsequently amended. ASU 2016-13 changed the methodology for measuring credit losses of financial instruments and the timing of when such losses are recorded. ASU 2016-13 was effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company adopted ASU 2016-13 beginning January 1, 2020 using a modified-retrospective approach. The impact of ASU 2016-13 was limited to credit losses associated with trade receivables as the Company does not hold additional significant financial instruments. Adoption of ASU 2016-13 resulted in less than a $0.1 million decrease in bad debt reserves as of January 1, 2020 which was recorded as a cumulative effect adjustment to accumulated loss.

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework—Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement ("ASU 2018-13"). ASU 2018-13 modifies the disclosure requirements for fair value measurements by removing, modifying, or adding certain disclosures. ASU 2018-13 was effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company adopted this guidance effective January 1, 2020.

In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment ("ASU 2017-04"). ASU 2017-04 simplified the subsequent measurement of goodwill and eliminates Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. ASU 2017-04 was effective for annual and interim goodwill tests beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company adopted this guidance effective January 1, 2020.

Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted:

There are currently no accounting standards not yet adopted that are expected to have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements or disclosures.

Revenue Recognition

Nature of Revenue: The Company accounts for revenue contracts with customers by applying the requirements of ASC topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, ("ASC 606"), which includes the following five steps:

 

Identification of the contract, or contracts with a customer.

 

Identification of the performance obligations in the contract.

 

Determination of the transaction price.

 

Allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract.

 

Recognition of the revenue when, or as, the Company satisfies a performance obligation.

The Company's primary sources of revenue are web-based software subscriptions, mobile applications, online services, and professional services.

Revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration expected to be received in exchange for those goods or services. Revenue is recognized net of allowances for returns. Revenue is also recognized net of any taxes collected from customers, which are subsequently remitted to governmental authorities.

The majority of our revenue is recognized from non-cancellable web-based software subscriptions, online services, professional services, and mobile applications. Subscription revenue is generated from contracts with customers that provide access to hosted software over a contract term without the customer taking possession of the software. Subscription revenue is recognized ratably over the contract period as the performance obligation is satisfied. Subscription revenue is generated by all three reportable segments and range from short-term to multi-year contracts. Online services are typically sold in short-term service periods and include dedicated online conversational coaching services and access to online communities of language learners. Professional services include implementation services. Online services revenue and professional services revenue are recognized as the services are provided. Expired services are forfeited and revenue is recognized upon expiry.

Performance Obligations: A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to the customer, and is the unit of account in ASC 606. A contract’s transaction price is allocated to each distinct performance obligation and recognized

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Table of Contents

 

ROSETTA STONE INC.

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)

 

as revenue when, or as, the performance obligation is satisfied. The Company’s performance obligations are satisfied at a point in time or over time as delivery occurs or as work progresses.

Significant Judgments: Some of the Company’s contracts with customers include promises to transfer multiple products and services to a customer. Determining whether products and services are considered distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately, versus together, requires significant judgment. This includes determining whether distinct services are part of a series of distinct services that are substantially the same. When subscription services are sold with professional services, judgment is required to determine whether the professional services are distinct and can be accounted for separately. In the E&E Language segment, the Company has concluded that each promised service within the language-learning subscription is delivered concurrently with all other promised services over the contract term and, as such, concluded that these promises are a single performance obligation that includes a series of distinct services that have the same pattern of transfer to the customer. When there are multiple performance obligations, revenue is allocated to each performance obligation based on its relative standalone selling price (“SSP”). Judgment is required to determine the SSP for each distinct performance obligation where SSP is not directly observable, such as when the product or service is not sold separately, SSP is determined using internally published price lists which include suggested sales prices for each performance obligation based on the type of client and volume purchased. These price lists are derived from past experience and from the expectation of obtaining a reasonable margin based on the cost to fulfill each performance obligation.

Subscription revenue is recognized ratably over the contract period as the performance obligation is satisfied. Certain Consumer Language offerings have contracts with no fixed duration and are marketed as lifetime subscriptions. For these lifetime subscriptions, the Company estimates the expected contract period as the greater of the typical customer usage period or the longest fixed-period duration subscription that is currently marketed. The Company's current expected contract period for lifetime subscriptions is 24 months.

Certain Consumer Language offerings are sold with a right of return and the Company may provide other credits or incentives. These rights are accounted for as variable consideration when estimating the amount of revenue to recognize by utilizing the expected value method. Returns and credits are estimated at contract inception based on historical return rates, estimated channel inventory levels, the timing of new product introductions and other factors. Reserves for returns and credits are updated at the end of each reporting period as additional information becomes available.

The Company distributes its products and services both directly to the end customer and indirectly through resellers. Resellers earn commissions generally calculated as a fixed percentage of the gross sale amount to the end customer. The Company evaluates each of its reseller relationships to determine whether it is the principal (where revenue is recognized at the gross amount) or agent (where revenue is recognized net of the reseller commission). In making this determination the Company evaluates a variety of factors including the amount of control the Company is able to exercise over the transactions.

Contract Balances: The timing of revenue recognition, invoicing, and cash collection results in accounts receivable and deferred revenue in the consolidated balance sheets. Payment from customers is often received in advance of services being provided, resulting in deferred revenue. Accounts receivable is recorded when there is an executed customer contract and the right to the consideration becomes unconditional. Contract assets such as unbilled receivables are not material.

The allowance for doubtful accounts reflects the best estimate of probable losses inherent in the accounts receivable balance. The Company establishes an allowance for doubtful accounts based on specific risks identified, historical experience, and other currently available evidence.

Payment terms and conditions vary by contract type and customer. For the E&E Language and Literacy segments, payment terms generally range from 30 to 90 days. In the Consumer Language segment, resellers and mobile app stores are generally granted payment terms between 30 to 45 days. Within Consumer Language, sales to end customers via the Rosetta Stone ecommerce website are done by credit card, which generally are settled within 7-10 days and may be made in installments. In instances where the timing of revenue recognition differs from the timing of invoicing, the Company has determined that contracts generally do not include a significant financing component. The primary purpose of invoicing terms is to provide customers with simplified and predictable ways of purchasing products and services and not to provide customers with financing.

Deferred revenue is comprised mainly of unearned revenue related to subscription services which is recognized ratably over the subscription period. Deferred revenue also includes payments for professional services and online services to be performed in the future which are earned as revenue when the service is provided. Most of our business is SaaS-based; consequently, backlog is not significant. See Note 10 "Revenue and Deferred Revenue" for additional disclosures.

Assets Recognized from Costs to Obtain a Contract with a Customer: The Company recognizes an asset for the incremental costs of obtaining a contract with a customer, which primarily represents sales commissions paid when a customer contract is either recorded as revenue or deferred revenue. Sales commission consists of variable commissions paid to salespeople as well as third party costs such as fees associated with sales made in App stores. Sales commissions paid to obtain non-cancellable subscription contracts are deferred and amortized in proportion to the period over which the revenue is recognized from the related contract. Deferred sales commissions are

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ROSETTA STONE INC.

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)

 

amortized to sales and marketing expense on the consolidated statements of operations. Deferred sales commissions are classified as non-current unless the associated amortization period is one year or less.

Income Taxes

The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with ASC topic 740, Income Taxes ("ASC 740"), which provides for an asset and liability approach to accounting for income taxes. Deferred tax assets and liabilities represent the future tax consequences of the differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of assets and liabilities versus the tax basis of assets and liabilities. Under this method, deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible temporary differences, and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred liabilities are recognized for taxable temporary differences. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The impact of tax rate changes on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in the year that the change is enacted.

Significant judgment is required to determine whether a valuation allowance is necessary and the amount of such valuation allowance, if appropriate. The valuation allowance is reviewed at each reporting period and is maintained until sufficient positive evidence exists to support a reversal.

When assessing the realization of the Company's deferred tax assets, the Company considers all available evidence, including:

 

the nature, frequency, and severity of cumulative financial reporting losses in recent years;

 

the carryforward periods for the net operating loss, capital loss, and foreign tax credit carryforwards;

 

predictability of future operating profitability of the character necessary to realize the asset;

 

prudent and feasible tax planning strategies that would be implemented, if necessary, to protect against the loss of the deferred tax assets; and

 

the effect of reversing taxable temporary differences.

The evaluation of the recoverability of the deferred tax assets requires that the Company weigh all positive and negative evidence to reach a conclusion that it is more likely than not that all or some portion of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The weight given to the evidence is commensurate with the extent to which it can be objectively verified. The more negative evidence that exists, the more positive evidence is necessary and the more difficult it is to support a conclusion that a valuation allowance is not needed.

The establishment of a valuation allowance has no effect on the ability to use the deferred tax assets in the future to reduce cash tax payments. The valuation allowance analysis considers a number of factors, including cumulative losses in recent years, expectations of future taxable income and the timeframe over which net operating losses expire. If future events change the outcome of the Company’s projected return to profitability, a valuation allowance may not be required to reduce the deferred tax assets. The Company will continue to assess the need for a valuation allowance and the likelihood that the deferred tax assets will be realizable at each reporting period. The valuation allowance will be adjusted accordingly, which could materially affect the Company's financial position and results of operations. See Note 15 "Income Taxes" for additional disclosures.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

The Company values its assets and liabilities using the methods of fair value as described in ASC topic 820, Fair Value Measurements, ("ASC 820"). ASC 820 establishes a three-tier fair value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value. The three levels of fair value hierarchy are described below:

Level 1: Quoted prices for identical instruments in active markets.

Level 2: Quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets; quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active; and model-derived valuations whose inputs are observable or whose significant value drivers are observable.

Level 3: Significant inputs to the valuation model are unobservable.

The carrying amounts reported in the consolidated balance sheets for cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable and other accrued expenses approximate fair value due to relatively short periods to maturity.

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ROSETTA STONE INC.

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)

 

Stock-Based Compensation

The Company accounts for its stock-based compensation in accordance with ASC topic 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation ("ASC 718"). Under ASC 718, all stock-based awards, including employee stock option grants, are recorded at fair value as of the grant date. For options granted with service and/or performance conditions, the fair value of each grant is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model which require the use of estimates, including future stock price volatility, expected term and forfeitures.

Stock options are granted to directors with a 10 -year contractual term. The Company estimates the expected term of stock options using historical grant and exercise information. The Company uses its own historical stock price data to estimate its forfeiture rate and expected volatility over the most recent period commensurate with the estimated expected term of the awards. For the risk-free interest rate, the Company uses a U.S. Treasury Bond rate consistent with the estimated expected term of the option award.

The Company’s restricted stock and restricted stock unit grants are accounted for as equity awards. Stock compensation expense associated with service-based equity awards is recognized in the statements of operations ratably over the requisite service period, which is the vesting period. If an award's service inception date precedes the grant date, compensation expense is initially measured at fair value at the service inception date based on probability of payout, and remeasured at subsequent reporting dates until all of the award’s key terms and conditions are known and the grant date is established. For equity awards granted with performance-based conditions, stock compensation expense is recognized in the statements of operations ratably for each vesting tranche based on the probability that operating performance conditions will be met and to what extent. Changes in the probability estimates associated with performance-based awards will be accounted for in the period of change using a cumulative catch-up adjustment to retroactively apply the new probability estimates. In any period in which the Company determines that achievement of the performance metrics is not probable, the Company ceases recording compensation expense and all previously recognized compensation expense for the performance-based award is reversed. For equity awards granted with market-based conditions, stock compensation expense is recognized in the statements of operations ratably for each vesting tranche regardless of meeting or not meeting the market conditions. See Note 12 "Stock-Based Compensation" for additional disclosures.

Basic and Diluted Net Loss Per Share

Net loss per share is computed under the provisions of ASC topic 260, Earnings Per Share. Basic loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of common shares and potential common shares outstanding during the period. Potential common shares are included in the diluted computation when dilutive. Potentially dilutive shares are computed using the treasury stock method and primarily consist of shares issuable upon the exercise of stock options, restricted stock awards, restricted stock units and conversion of shares of preferred stock. Common stock equivalent shares are excluded from the diluted computation if their effect is anti-dilutive. When there is a net loss, there is a presumption that there are no dilutive shares as these would be anti-dilutive. See Note 14 "Basic and Diluted Net Loss Per Share" for additional disclosures.

Foreign Currency Translation and Transactions

The functional currency of the Company's foreign subsidiaries is their local currency. Accordingly, assets and liabilities of the foreign subsidiaries are translated into U.S. dollars at exchange rates in effect on the balance sheet date. Income and expense items are translated at average rates for the period. Translation adjustments are recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive loss in stockholders' deficit.

Cash flows of consolidated foreign subsidiaries, whose functional currency is their local currency, are translated to U.S. dollars using average exchange rates for the period. The Company reports the effect of exchange rate changes on cash balances held in foreign currencies as a separate item in the reconciliation of the changes in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash during the period.

The following table presents the effect of exchange rate changes on total comprehensive loss (in thousands):

 

 

 

Three months ended March 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019