rst-s3a.htm

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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on August 22, 2019

Registration No. 333-233046

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amendment No. 2

to

Form S-3

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rosetta Stone Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Delaware

 

043837082

(State or other jurisdiction of

 

(I.R.S. Employer

incorporation or organization)

 

Identification No.)

 

1621 North Kent St., Suite 1200

Arlington, Virginia 22209

703-387-5800

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

Sean Klein

General Counsel & Secretary

1621 North Kent St., Suite 1200

Arlington, Virginia 22209

703-387-5800

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Copy to:

 

Amy Bowerman Freed

Lillian Tsu

Hogan Lovells US LLP

390 Madison Avenue

New York, NY 10017

(212) 918-3000

 

 

 

 

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:  From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.

 

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box. 

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box. 

 

If this form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. 

 

If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. 

 

If this form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  

 

If this form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. 

 

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

 

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revisited financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act.

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

Title of Each Class of

Securities to be Registered

 

Amount to be

Registered (1)

 

Proposed Maximum

Offering Price Per Unit (2)

 

Proposed Maximum

Aggregate Offering Price

 

 

 

Amount of

Registration Fee (4)

 

 

Senior Debt Securities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Subordinated Debt Securities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Stock, par value $0.00005 per share

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Warrants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Units

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

$

200,000,000

 

(2)(3)

 

$

24,240

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

$

24,240

 

(5)

(1)                          There are being registered hereunder such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock, such indeterminate number of warrants, such indeterminate number of units, such indeterminate principal amount of senior debt securities and such indeterminate principal amount of subordinated debt securities as shall have an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $200,000,000.  If any senior debt securities or subordinated debt securities are issued at an original issue discount, then the offering price of such debt securities shall be in such greater principal amount as shall result in an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $200,000,000, less the dollar amount of any securities previously issued hereunder.  In general, the securities registered hereunder also include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock as may be issued upon conversion of or exchange for preferred stock or debt securities that provide for conversion or exchange, upon exercise of warrants or pursuant to the antidilution provisions of any registered securities.

 

(2)                         The proposed maximum offering price will be determined from time to time by the registrant in connection with the issuance by the registrant of the securities registered hereunder.

 

(3)                          Estimated solely for the purpose of determining the registration fee in accordance with Rule 457 under the Securities Act.

 


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(4)                           Estimated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act based on the proposed maximum aggregate offering price.

(5)                          The registration fee of $24,240 was previously paid with this registration statement.

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 

 

 



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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective.  This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

PROSPECTUS Dated August 22, 2019 (Subject to completion)

 

Rosetta Stone Inc.

 

$200,000,000

 

Senior Debt Securities

Subordinated Debt Securities

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Warrants

Units

 

 

 

 

 

 

This prospectus will allow us to offer and sell up to an aggregate of $200,000,000 of our senior debt securities, subordinated debt securities, common stock, preferred stock, warrants and units from time to time at prices and on terms to be determined at or prior to the time of the offering.  We may offer and sell these securities to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, on a continuous or delayed basis.  If we offer and sell these securities to or through underwriters, dealers or agents, their names and other applicable details will be included in a prospectus supplement.

 

This prospectus describes the general terms of the securities we may offer.  The specific terms of any securities and the specific manner in which we will offer them will be included in a supplement to this prospectus relating to that offering.

 

We encourage you to carefully read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement before you invest in our securities.  We also encourage you to read the documents we have referred you to in the “Where You Can Find More Information” section of this prospectus for information on us and for our financial statements.

 

Our common stock, par value $0.00005 per share, is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “RST.” As of August 21, 2019, the closing price of our common stock was $17.74.

 

Investing in our securities involves risks. You should carefully consider all of the information set forth in this prospectus, including the risk factors set forth under “Risk Factors” on page 3 of this prospectus, as well as the risk factors and other information in any accompanying prospectus supplement and any documents we incorporate by reference into this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, before deciding to invest in our securities.  See “Incorporation of Certain Information By Reference.”

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus.  Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

 

 

 

The date of this prospectus is 

 

 

 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

Page

About This Prospectus

1

About Rosetta Stone Inc.

2

Risk Factors

3

Forward-Looking Statements

4

Where You Can Find More Information

5

Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference

6

Use of Proceeds

7

Plan of Distribution

8

Description of Debt Securities

9

Description of Capital Stock

16

Description of Warrants

20

Description of Units

21

Legal Matters

22

Experts

22

 

 


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, using a “shelf” registration process.   Under this shelf registration process, we may sell the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings up to a total offering price of $200,000,000.  This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer.  Each time we offer to sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering.  Any such prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus.  You should read both the prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

You should not assume that the information in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or any documents we incorporate by reference into this prospectus and any prospectus supplement is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of those documents.  Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

 

We have not authorized any dealer, salesman or other person to give you any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus and in the documents we incorporate into this prospectus.  You should not assume that the information contained in the prospectus contained in this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement is accurate on any date subsequent to the date set forth on the front of such document or that any information we have incorporated by reference is correct on any date subsequent to the date of the document incorporated by reference, even though this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement is delivered or securities are sold on a later date.

 

This prospectus is not an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, the securities offered hereby in any jurisdiction to any person to whom it is unlawful to make an offer or solicitation in that jurisdiction.  Delivery of this prospectus at any time does not imply that the information contained herein is correct as of any time subsequent to the date hereof.

 

In this prospectus, all references to the “Company,” “Rosetta Stone,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Rosetta Stone Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries.


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ABOUT ROSETTA STONE INC.

 

We are dedicated to changing people’s lives through the power of language and literacy education. Our innovative digital solutions drive positive learning outcomes for the inspired learner at home or in schools and workplaces around the world. Founded in 1992, Rosetta Stone’s language division uses cloud-based solutions to help all types of learners read, write, and speak more than 30 languages. Lexia Learning, Rosetta Stone’s literacy education division, was founded more than 30 years ago and is a leader in the literacy education space. Today, Lexia Learning helps students build foundational reading skills through its rigorously researched, independently evaluated, and widely respected instruction and assessment programs.

 

We have three operating segments: Literacy, Enterprise & Education Language (“E&E Language”), and Consumer Language. The Literacy segment derives revenue under a Software-as-a-Service ("SaaS") model from the sales of literacy solutions to educational institutions serving grades K through 12. The E&E Language segment derives language-learning revenues from sales to educational institutions, corporations, and government agencies worldwide under a SaaS model. The Consumer Language segment derives revenue from sales to individuals and retail partners worldwide and recently completed a SaaS migration from a packaged software business.

 

Our Literacy distribution channel utilizes a direct sales force as well as relationships with third-party resellers focused on the sale of Lexia Learning solutions to K-12 schools. Our E&E Language distribution model is focused on targeted sales activity primarily through a direct sales force in five markets: K-12 schools; colleges and universities; federal government agencies; corporations; and not-for-profit organizations. Our Consumer Language distribution channel comprises a mix of our call centers, websites, app-stores, third party e-commerce websites, select retail resellers, such as Amazon.com, Barnes & Noble, Target, Best Buy, and Staples, consignment distributors such as Software Packaging Associates, and daily deal partners.

 

We were incorporated in Delaware in 2005 and completed our initial public offering in April 2009.  Our principal executive offices are located at 1621 North Kent St., Suite 1200, Arlington, Virginia 22209.  Our main telephone number is (703) 387-5800.  Our Internet website is www.rosettastone.com.  Information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus and you should not consider information contained on our website as part of this prospectus.


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RISK FACTORS

 

An investment in our securities involves risks. We urge you to carefully consider all of the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and other information which may be incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement as provided under “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference,” including the risks described under “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and as set forth below, which may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by other reports we file with the SEC in the future.  This prospectus also contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties.  Please read “Forward-Looking Statements.”  Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in the forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks described elsewhere in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any prospectus supplement.  If any of these risks occur, our business, financial condition or results of operation could be adversely affected. As a result, you could lose all or part of your investment.

 

Our bylaws designate the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, employees or agents.

 

Pursuant to the Company’s bylaws, unless the Company consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware shall be the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Company, (ii) any action asserting a claim for breach of a fiduciary duty owed by an director, officer, employee or agent of the Company to the Company or the Company’s stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL, the certificate of incorporation or the bylaws of the Company or (iv) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine, in each case subject to the Court of Chancery having personal jurisdiction over the indispensable parties named as defendants therein.  Any person of entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of capital stock of the Company shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to these provisions of the Company’s bylaws.  This choice of forum provision may limit the Company’s stockholders’ ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that they find favorable for disputes with the Company or the Company’s directors, officers, employees or agents, which may discourage such lawsuits against the Company and the Company’s directors, officers, employees and agents even though an action, if successful, might benefit the Company’s stockholders.  Stockholders who do bring a claim in the Court of Chancery could face additional litigation costs in pursuing any such claim, particularly if they do not reside in or near Delaware.  The Court of Chancery may also reach different judgments or results than would other courts, including courts where a stockholder considering an action may be located or would otherwise choose to bring the action, and such judgments or results may be more favorable to the Company than to the Company’s stockholders.  Alternatively, if a court were to find these provisions of the Company’s bylaws inapplicable to, or unenforceable in respect of, one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, the Company may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition or results of operations.

 

Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. As a result, the exclusive forum provision will not apply to suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. In addition, Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. As a result, the exclusive forum provision will not apply to suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or any other claim for which the federal and state courts have concurrent jurisdiction.


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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus contains or incorporates by reference statements that constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”).  These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors that may cause our or our industry’s actual results, levels of activity, performance, or achievements to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance, or achievements expressed or implied by those forward-looking statements.  In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “outlook,” “seek,” “will,” “aim,” “may,” “should,” “intend,” “expect,” “plan,” “budget,” “forecast,” “guidance,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “project,” “predict,” “potential,” or “continue,” or the negative of such terms or other comparable terminology.  You are cautioned that such forward-looking statements involve significant known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our or our industry’s actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by those forward-looking statements.

 

These statements may include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

our business strategies;

 

our future financial performance;

 

contributions and performance of our businesses including acquired businesses;

 

our development of new products and ability to adapt to technological advancements;

 

demand for our products;

 

efficiency of our marketing;

 

our competition;

 

international expansion;

 

retention of our customer base;

 

the sufficiency of our cash flows from operations and available sources of funds;

 

the impact of inflation on our financial position and results of operations;

 

cybersecurity; and

 

legislative and regulatory developments.

 

The forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus are largely based on our expectations, which reflect estimates and assumptions made by our management.  These estimates and assumptions reflect management’s best judgment based on currently known market conditions and other factors.  Although we believe such estimates and assumptions to be reasonable, they are inherently uncertain and involve a number of risks and uncertainties beyond our control. In addition, management’s assumptions may prove to be inaccurate.  We caution you that the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus are not guarantees of future performance, and we cannot assure any reader that such statements will be realized or the forward-looking statements or events will occur. Future results may differ materially from those anticipated or implied in forward looking statements due to factors described under “Risk Factors” above and other factors that are unknown to us.  If one or more of these factors materialize, or if any underlying assumptions prove incorrect, our future results, performance or achievements may vary materially from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements.  The forward-looking statements speak only as of the date made, and other than as required by law, we undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

 


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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act with respect to the securities being offered under this prospectus.  This prospectus, which is included in the registration statement, does not contain all of the information in the registration statement.  For further information regarding the Company and our securities, please see the registration statement and our other filings with the SEC, including our annual, quarterly and current reports and proxy statements.  The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov.  Our Internet website address is www.rosettastone.com.  Information contained on our website is not part of this prospectus, unless specifically so designated and filed with the SEC.

 

We furnish holders of our common stock with annual reports containing audited financial statements prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States following the end of each fiscal year.  We file reports and other information with the SEC pursuant to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act.

 

Descriptions in this prospectus of documents are intended to be summaries of the material, relevant portions of those documents, but may not be complete descriptions of those documents.  For complete copies of those documents, please refer to the exhibits to the registration statement and other documents filed by us with the SEC.


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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we have filed with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you without actually including the specific information in this prospectus by referring you to those documents.  The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus and later information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information.  Therefore, before you decide to invest in a particular offering under this shelf registration, you should always check for reports we may have filed with the SEC after the date of this prospectus. We incorporate by reference into this prospectus (1) the documents listed below and (2) any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act following the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of the offering covered by this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, including all such documents we may file with the SEC after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, in each case other than information furnished to the SEC under Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K (including any exhibits included with such information, unless indicated otherwise therein) and which is not deemed filed under the Exchange Act and is not incorporated in this prospectus:

 

 

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for our fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on March 6, 2019;

 

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on May 7, 2019 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2019, filed with the SEC on August 6, 2019;

 

Our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on May 22, 2019, our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on June 13, 2019 and our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on August 7, 2019; and

 

The description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on April 13, 2009.

 

We will provide, without charge, to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a copy of this prospectus has been delivered, upon written or oral request of such person, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated by reference herein (other than certain exhibits to such documents not specifically incorporated by reference).  Requests for such copies should be directed to:

 

Rosetta Stone Inc.

1621 North Kent St., Suite 1200

Arlington, Virginia 22209

(703) 387-5800

Attention: Corporate Secretary

 


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USE OF PROCEEDS

 

Unless we inform you otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may use the net proceeds from the sale of the offered securities for various business purposes, including strategic acquisitions, capital expenditures, working capital, the repurchase and redemption of our securities and other general corporate purposes. If we do not use the net proceeds immediately, we may temporarily invest them in short-term marketable securities. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for such purposes. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of net proceeds.

 


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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We may use this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement to sell our securities from time to time as follows:

 

 

directly to purchasers;

 

through agents;

 

through underwriters;

 

through dealers; and

 

through any other method permitted by applicable law.

 

We, or agents designated by us, may directly solicit, from time to time, offers to purchase our securities. Any such agent may be deemed to be an underwriter as that term is defined in the Securities Act. We will name the agents involved in the offer or sale of our securities and describe any commissions payable by us to these agents in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, these agents will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of their appointment. The agents may be entitled under agreements which may be entered into with us to indemnification by us against specific civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. The agents may also be our customers or may engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

 

If we utilize any underwriters in the sale of our securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will enter into an underwriting agreement with those underwriters at the time of sale to them. We will set forth the names of these underwriters and the terms of the transaction in the applicable prospectus supplement, which will be used by the underwriters to make resales of our securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered to the public.  We may indemnify the underwriters under the relevant underwriting agreement against specific liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. The underwriters may also be our customers or may engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

 

If we utilize a dealer in the sale of our securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will sell the securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale. We may indemnify the dealers against specific liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. The dealers may also be our customers or may engage in transactions with, or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

 

To the extent that we make sales through one or more underwriters or agents in at-the-market offerings, we will do so pursuant to the terms of a sales agency financing agreement or other at-the-market offering arrangement between us and the underwriters or agents. If we engage in at-the-market sales pursuant to any such agreement, we will issue and sell our securities through one or more underwriters or agents, which may act on an agency basis or on a principal basis. During the term of any such agreement, we may sell securities on a daily basis in exchange transactions or otherwise as we agree with the underwriters or agents. The agreement will provide that any securities sold will be sold at prices related to the then prevailing market prices for our securities. Therefore, exact figures regarding proceeds that will be raised or commissions to be paid cannot be determined at this time. Pursuant to the terms of the agreement, we also may agree to sell, and the relevant underwriters or agents may agree to solicit offers to purchase, blocks of our common stock or other securities. The terms of each such agreement will be set forth in more detail in a prospectus supplement to this prospectus. In the event that any underwriter or agent acts as principal, or broker-dealer acts as underwriter, it may engage in certain transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of our securities. We will describe any such activities in the prospectus supplement relating to the transaction.

 

The place and time of delivery for our securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 


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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

 

The following description sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the debt securities to which any prospectus supplement may relate.  A prospectus supplement will describe the terms relating to any debt securities to be offered in greater detail and may provide information that is different from this prospectus. If the information in the prospectus supplement with respect to the particular debt securities being offered differs from this prospectus, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.

 

The debt securities may be issued from time to time in one or more series and will be senior debt securities or subordinated debt securities.  The senior debt securities will be issued under an indenture which may be amended or supplemented from time to time (the “Senior Indenture”), to be entered into between us and a trustee to be named therein (the “Senior Trustee”), and the subordinated debt securities will be issued under a separate indenture which may be amended or supplemented from time to time (the “Subordinated Indenture”) to be entered into between us and a trustee to be named therein (the “Subordinated Trustee”).  The term “Trustee” used in this prospectus shall refer to the Senior Trustee or the Subordinated Trustee, as appropriate.  The Senior Indenture and the Subordinated Indenture are sometimes collectively referred to herein as the “Indentures” and individually as “Indenture.”  The Indentures are subject to and governed by the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “TIA”), and may be supplemented from time to time following execution.

 

The terms of the debt securities include those stated in the applicable Indenture and those made part of the Indenture by reference to the TIA. The debt securities are subject to all of those terms, and holders of debt securities are referred to the applicable Indenture and the TIA for a statement of those terms. You should read the Indentures, including any amendments or supplements, carefully to fully understand the terms of the debt securities. A form of each Indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

 

The statements set forth below in this section are brief summaries of certain provisions contained in the Indentures, do not purport to be complete, and are subject to, and are qualified in their entirety by reference to, the Indentures, including the definitions of certain terms therein, and the TIA. This summary may not contain all of the information that may be important to you. Capitalized terms used in this section and not otherwise defined in this section will have the respective meanings assigned to them in the Indentures.

 

General

 

The debt securities will be our direct, unsecured obligations. The indebtedness represented by the senior debt securities will rank equally with all of our other unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness. The indebtedness represented by the subordinated debt securities will be subordinated in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all of our senior debt as described below under “Subordination.”

 

A prospectus supplement, the applicable Indenture and the supplemental indenture or authorizing resolution of our board of directors (including any related officer’s certificate or Company order), if any, relating to any series of debt securities being offered will include specific terms relating to the offering.  These terms will include some or all of the following:

 

 

the form and title of the debt securities and whether the debt securities are senior debt securities or subordinated debt securities;

 

the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities and any limit on the aggregate principal amount, provided, however, that such amount may from time to time be increased by a resolution of our board of directors;

 

the price or prices at which the debt securities will be sold;

 

the person to whom any interest on a debt security of the series shall be payable, if other than the person in whose name that debt security is registered;

 

the date or dates on which the principal of the debt securities shall be payable;

 

the rate or rates (fixed or variable, or combination thereof) at which the debt securities shall bear interest, if any, or the method of determining such rate or rates;

 

the date or dates on which any such interest shall be payable, the date or dates on which payment of any such interest shall commence and the record dates, if any, for such payment date or dates, or the method of determining such date or dates, and the basis upon which interest shall be calculated if other than that of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months, the right, if any, to extend or defer interest payments and the duration of such extension or deferral;

 

any optional or mandatory redemption or repayment option, including any sinking fund, amortization or analogous provisions;

 

if other than a minimum denomination equal to $2,000 or an integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof, the denominations in which any debt securities of the series shall be issuable;

 

any special tax implications of the debt securities, including provisions for original issue discount securities, if offered;

 

any provisions granting special rights to holders when a specified event occurs;

 

the percentage of the principal amount at which the debt securities will be issued and any payments due if the maturity of the debt securities is accelerated;

 

any Events of Default or covenants with respect to the debt securities that differ from, or are in addition to, those set forth in the applicable Indenture;

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if other than U.S. dollars, the currency or currencies for which the debt securities shall be issued or in which the principal thereof, any premium thereon and any interest thereon shall be payable;

 

provisions regarding the convertibility or exchangeability of the debt securities;

 

provisions pertaining to the issuance of debt securities in the form of global debt securities, as described below;

 

provisions relating to the satisfaction and discharge of the applicable Indenture;

 

the form of and conditions to issuance of debt securities issuable in definitive form, other than as described below;

 

if other than the Trustee, the identity of any other trustee, the registrar for the debt securities and any paying agent;

 

whether the debt securities of the series will be guaranteed by any persons and, if so, the identity of such persons, the terms and conditions upon which such debt securities will be guaranteed and, if applicable, the terms and conditions upon which such guarantees may be subordinated to other indebtedness of the respective guarantors;

 

whether the debt securities of the series will be secured by any collateral and, if so, the terms and conditions upon which such debt securities will be secured and, if applicable, upon which such liens may be subordinated to other liens securing other indebtedness of us or of any guarantor;

 

whether the debt securities will be issued in a transaction exempt from registration under the Securities Act and any restriction or condition on the transferability of the debt securities of such series;

 

the exchanges, if any, on which the debt securities may be listed;

 

the terms of any right to convert or exchange debt securities of such series into any other securities or property of ours or of any other corporation or person, and the additions or changes, if any, to the applicable Indenture with respect to the debt securities of such series to permit or facilitate such conversion or exchange; and

 

any other terms not prohibited by the provisions of the applicable Indenture.

 

The debt securities of a series may be issued in registered, coupon or global form and will be denominated in an amount equal to all or a portion of the aggregate principal amount of those debt securities. See “Global Debt Securities.”

 

Unless otherwise set forth in a prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that protect the holders of the debt securities in the event of a change of control of us or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction, whether or not such transaction results in a change of control of us.

 

Neither Indenture will limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue, unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement.  Each Indenture will allow us to issue debt securities of any series up to the aggregate principal amount that we authorize. We may, without the consent of the holders of the debt securities of any series, issue additional debt securities ranking equally with, and otherwise similar in all respects to, the debt securities of an outstanding series (except for the public offering price and the issue date) so that those additional debt securities will be consolidated and form a single series with the debt securities of the series previously offered and sold.

 

Denominations

 

Unless otherwise indicated in any applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities of any series denominated in U.S. dollars will be issued only in fully registered form in denominations of $2,000 or any integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof. If the debt securities of a series are denominated in a foreign or composite currency, the applicable prospectus supplement will specify the denomination or denominations in which those debt securities will be issued.

 

Global Debt Securities

 

Certain series of the debt securities may be issued as permanent global debt securities to be deposited with a depositary with respect to that series.  Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the following is a summary of the depository arrangements applicable to debt securities issued in permanent global form and for which The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, acts as depositary.

 

Each global debt security will be deposited with, or on behalf of, DTC, as depositary, or its nominee and registered in the name of a nominee of DTC.  Except under the limited circumstances described below, global debt securities are not exchangeable for definitive certificated debt securities.

 

Ownership of beneficial interests in a global debt security is limited to institutions that have accounts with DTC or its nominee (“participants”) or persons that may hold interests through participants. In addition, ownership of beneficial interests by participants in a global debt security will be evidenced only by, and the transfer of that ownership interest will be effected only through, records maintained by DTC or its nominee for a global debt security.  Ownership of beneficial interests in a global debt security by persons that hold through participants will be evidenced only by, and the transfer of that ownership interest within that participant will be effected only through, records maintained by that participant. DTC has no knowledge of the actual beneficial owners of the debt securities. Beneficial owners will not receive written confirmation from DTC of their purchase, but beneficial owners are expected to receive written confirmations providing details of the transaction, as well as periodic statements of their holdings, from the participants through which the beneficial owners entered the transaction. The laws of some jurisdictions require that certain purchasers of securities take physical delivery of such securities in definitive form. Such laws may impair the ability to transfer beneficial interests in a global debt security.

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Payments on debt securities represented by a global debt security registered in the name of or held by DTC or its nominee will be made to DTC or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner and holder of the global debt security representing the debt securities. We expect that upon receipt of any payments with respect to a global debt security, DTC will immediately credit accounts of participants on its book-entry registration and transfer system with payments in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in the principal amount of that global debt security as shown in the records of DTC. Payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in a global debt security held through those participants will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name,” and will be the sole responsibility of those participants, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements that may be in effect from time to time.

 

Neither we, any Trustee nor any of our respective agents will be responsible for any aspect of the records of DTC, any nominee or any participant relating to, or payments made on account of, beneficial interests in a permanent global debt security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any of the records of DTC, any nominee or any participant relating to such beneficial interests.

 

A global debt security is exchangeable for definitive debt securities registered in the name of, and a transfer of a global debt security may be registered to, any person other than DTC or its nominee, only if:

 

 

DTC notifies us that it is unwilling or unable to continue as depositary for that global debt security or at any time DTC ceases to be registered under the Exchange Act, and a successor depositary is not appointed by us within 90 days after our receipt of such notice;

 

there shall have occurred and be continuing an event of default under the debt securities and the registrar shall have received a request from the depositary to issue certificated securities;

 

we determine in our sole discretion that the global debt security shall be exchangeable for definitive debt securities in registered form; or

 

as may be provided in any applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Any global debt security that is exchangeable pursuant to the preceding sentence will be exchangeable in whole for definitive debt securities in registered form, of like tenor and of an equal aggregate principal amount as the global debt security. The definitive debt securities will be registered by the registrar in the name or names instructed by DTC. We expect that these instructions may be based upon directions received by DTC from its participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global debt security.

 

Except as provided above, owners of the beneficial interests in a global debt security will not be entitled to receive physical delivery of debt securities in definitive form and will not be considered the holders of debt securities for any purpose under the Indentures. No global debt security shall be exchangeable except for another global debt security of like denomination and tenor to be registered in the name of DTC or its nominee. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a global debt security must rely on the procedures of DTC and, if that person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which that person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the global debt security or the Indentures.

 

We understand that, under existing industry practices, in the event that we request any action of holders, or an owner of a beneficial interest in a global debt security desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take under the debt securities or the Indentures, DTC would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interest to give or take that action, and those participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through those participants to give or take that action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners owning through them.

 

DTC is a limited purpose trust company organized under the laws of the State of New York, a “banking organization” within the meaning of the New York Banking Law, a member of the Federal Reserve System, a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code and a “clearing agency” pursuant to the provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act. DTC was created to hold securities of its participants and to facilitate the clearance and settlement of securities transactions among its participants in those securities through electronic book-entry changes in accounts of the participants, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. DTC’s participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and certain other organizations. DTC is a wholly owned subsidiary of The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation (“DTCC”).  DTCC is the holding company for DTC, National Securities Clearance Corporation and Fixed Income Clearing Corporation, all of which are registered clearing agencies.  DTCC is owned by the users of its regulated subsidiaries.  Access to the DTC system is also available to others, such as banks, brokers, dealers, trust companies and clearing corporations that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a participant, either directly or indirectly. The rules applicable to DTC and its participants are on file with the SEC.  More information about DTC can be found at www.dtcc.com; the information contained on that website is not incorporated in this prospectus or in any prospectus supplement.

 

Certain Covenants

 

Each Indenture sets forth limited covenants that will apply to each series of debt securities issued under the applicable Indenture, unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. Under the Indentures, we will agree to:

 

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pay the principal of, and interest and any premium on, the debt securities when due;

 

maintain a place of payment;

 

deliver an officer’s certificate to the Trustee within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year regarding our review of compliance with our obligations under the Indentures;

 

maintain our corporate existence; and

 

deposit sufficient funds with any paying agent on or before the due date for any payment of principal, interest or premium.

 

Consolidation, Merger or Asset Sale

 

Both Indentures generally will allow us to consolidate with or merge into any other person, association or entity. They also will allow us to convey, transfer or lease our property and assets as, or substantially as, an entirety to a person, association or entity.

 

However, we will only consolidate with or merge into any other person, association or entity or convey, transfer or lease our properties and assets as, or substantially as, an entirety according to the terms and conditions of the Indentures, which will include the following requirements:

 

 

(i) we are the surviving person or (ii) the remaining or acquiring person, association or entity is a corporation or partnership organized under the laws of the United States, any state or the District of Columbia and expressly assumes all of our responsibilities and liabilities under the Indentures, including the punctual payment of all amounts due on the debt securities and performance of the covenants in the Indentures;

 

immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Event of Default, and no event which, after notice or lapse of time or both, would become an Event of Default, as defined below, exists; and

 

delivery to the Trustee of an officer’s certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that all related conditions have been satisfied.

 

The remaining or acquiring person, association or entity will be substituted for us in the Indentures with the same effect as if it had been an original party to the Indentures. Thereafter, the successor may exercise our rights and powers under the Indentures, in our name or in its own name. If we sell or transfer our assets substantially as an entirety, we will be released from all our liabilities and obligations under the Indentures and the debt securities. If we lease our assets substantially as an entirety, we will not be released from our obligations under the Indentures and the debt securities.

 

Events of Default

 

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, each of the following events will be an Event of Default under an Indenture with respect to any series of debt securities issued under that Indenture:

 

 

failure to pay any interest on any debt security of the series when due, continued for 30 days;

 

failure to pay principal of (or premium, if any, on) any debt security of the series when due;

 

failure to deposit a sinking fund payment when and as due by the terms of a debt security of the series;

 

failure to perform or comply with any covenant in the applicable Indenture or related supplemental indenture, continued for 90 days after written notice as provided in the Indenture;

 

certain events in bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization affecting us; and

 

any other Event of Default set forth in the applicable indenture or supplemental indenture relating to the debt securities of that series.

 

An Event of Default for a particular series of debt securities does not necessarily constitute an Event of Default for any other series of debt securities issued under an Indenture.  The applicable Trustee may withhold notice to the holders of a series of debt securities of any default, except payment defaults of principal or interest or any premium on those debt securities, if it considers such withholding to be in the interest of the holders.

 

If an Event of Default occurs and is continuing, then the applicable Trustee or the holders of 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may declare the entire principal amount of the debt securities of that series to be due and payable immediately; provided, however, that the holders of a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities of that series may, under certain circumstances, rescind and annul the declaration.

 

Subject to provisions in each Indenture relating to its duties in case an Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing, no Trustee will be under an obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under that Indenture at the request, order or direction of any holders of debt securities then outstanding under that Indenture, unless the holders shall have offered to the applicable Trustee reasonable indemnity. If such reasonable indemnity is provided, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the applicable Trustee or exercising any power conferred on the Trustee, for any series of debt securities.

 

Defeasance

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Debt securities of a series may be defeased at any time in accordance with their terms and as set forth in the applicable Indenture and described briefly below, unless the securities resolutions or supplemental indenture establishing the terms of the series provides otherwise. Any defeasance may terminate all of our obligations (with limited exceptions) with respect to a series of debt securities and the applicable Indenture (“legal defeasance”), or it may terminate only our obligations under any restrictive covenants which may be applicable to a particular series (“covenant defeasance”).

 

We may exercise our legal defeasance option even though we have also exercised our covenant defeasance option. If we exercise the legal defeasance option with respect to a series of debt securities, that series may not be accelerated because of an Event of Default. If we exercise the covenant defeasance option, that series of debt securities may not be accelerated by reference to any restrictive covenants which may be applicable to that particular series.

 

To exercise either defeasance option as to a series of debt securities, we must:

 

 

irrevocably deposit in trust with the applicable Trustee or another trustee money or U.S. government obligations in an amount to pay and discharge the principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities on the stated maturities or redemption dates therefor and any mandatory sinking fund payments;

 

deliver a certificate from a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bankers expressing their opinion that the payments of principal and interest when due on the deposited U.S. government obligations, without reinvestment, plus any deposited money without investment, will provide cash at the times and in the amounts necessary to pay the principal of and premium and interest when due on all debt securities of the series to maturity or redemption, as the case may be, and any mandatory sinking fund payments; and

 

comply with certain other conditions, including that there be no Event of Default at the time of deposit or Event of Default due to bankruptcy on or prior to the 90th day after the deposit date. In particular, we must obtain an opinion of tax counsel that the defeasance will not result in recognition of any gain or loss to holders for federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit.

 

Discharge

 

We may discharge all our obligations under an Indenture with respect to the notes of any series, other than our obligation to register the transfer of and to exchange notes of that series, when either:

 

 

all outstanding notes of that series (except (i) mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen notes that have been replaced or paid and notes for whose payment money has been deposited in trust and thereafter repaid to us and (ii) notes for whose payment money has theretofore been deposited in trust or segregated and held in trust by us and thereafter repaid to us or discharged from such trust) have been delivered to the Trustee cancelled or for cancellation; or

 

all such notes not so delivered for cancellation have either become due and payable or will become due and payable at their stated maturity within one year or are to be called for redemption within one year, and we have deposited with the Trustee in trust an amount of cash sufficient to pay the entire indebtedness of such notes, including interest to the stated maturity or applicable redemption date; and

 

we have paid all other sums due under that Indenture and delivered an officer’s certificate and opinion of counsel to the Trustee stating that all related conditions have been satisfied.

 

Modification of Indentures

 

Under each Indenture, generally we and the Trustee may modify our rights and obligations and the rights of the holders with the consent of the holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series affected by the modification.

 

No modification of the principal or interest payment terms, no modification reducing the percentage required for any waiver or modifications and no modification impairing the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment on debt securities of any series when due, is effective against any holder without its consent.

 

In addition, we and the applicable Trustee may amend the Indentures without the consent of any holder of the debt securities to make certain changes, such as:

 

 

curing ambiguities or correcting defects or inconsistencies;

 

otherwise adding or changing provisions with respect to matters or questions arising under the applicable Indenture relating to a particular series of debt securities that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder in any material respect;

 

evidencing the succession of another person to us, and the assumption by that successor of our obligations under the applicable indenture and the debt securities of any series;

 

providing for the acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee;

 

qualifying the applicable Indenture under the TIA;

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complying with the rules and regulations of any securities exchange or automated quotation system on which debt securities of any series may be listed or traded or any applicable depositary;

 

adding, changing or eliminating provisions relating to a particular series of debt securities to be issued , provided that any such addition, change or elimination (1) shall neither (i) apply to any debt security of any series created prior to the execution of such supplemental indenture and entitled to the benefit of such provision nor (ii) modify the rights of the holders of any such debt security with respect to such provision or (2) shall become effective only when there is not such debt security outstanding;

 

to establish the form or terms of any debt securities of any series under the applicable Indenture; or

 

to provide for the issuance of additional debt securities of any series.

 

Subordination

 

Debt securities of a series may be subordinated to our “Senior Indebtedness,” which we define (subject to modification in any applicable prospectus supplement) generally as money borrowed, including guarantees of payment, by us that is not expressly subordinate or junior in right of payment to any of our other indebtedness. Subordinated debt securities will be subordinate in right of payment, to the extent and in the manner set forth in the applicable Indenture, and related supplemental indenture or authorizing resolution or our board of directors (including any related officer’s certificate or Company order), and the prospectus supplement relating to such series, to the prior payment of all of our indebtedness that is designated as “Senior Indebtedness” with respect to the series. Under a subordinated indenture, payment of the principal, interest and premium, if any, on the subordinated debt securities will generally be subordinated and junior in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all senior debt. The Subordinated Indenture will provide that (i) no payment of principal, interest and any premium on the subordinated debt securities may be made, (ii) no deposit in trust for satisfaction and discharge or defeasance may be made, and (iii) no repurchase, redemption or retirement may be made, subject to certain exceptions in the event:

 

 

we fail to pay the principal, interest, premium, if any, or any other amounts on any Senior Indebtedness within any applicable grace period (including at maturity);

 

any other default on Senior Indebtedness occurs and the maturity of such Senior Indebtedness is accelerated in accordance with its terms unless, in either case, the default has been cured or waived and any such acceleration has been rescinded or such Senior Indebtedness has been paid in full in cash;

 

of any insolvency, bankruptcy or similar proceeding involving us or our property; or

 

of a default (other than payment default) with respect to the Senior Indebtedness that imposes a payment blockage on the subordinated debt securities for a maximum of 179 days at any one time, unless the Event of Default has been cured or waived or shall no longer exist.

 

The Subordinated Indenture will not limit the amount of Senior Indebtedness that we may incur.

 

No Individual Liability of Officers, Directors, Employees or Stockholders

 

No director, officer, employee or stockholder, as such, of ours or any of our affiliates shall have any personal liability in respect of our obligations under any Indenture or the debt securities by reason of his, her or its status as such.

 

Governing Law

 

The Indentures and all the debt securities will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York.

 

Regarding the Trustee

 

Each Indenture provides that there may be more than one trustee under the applicable Indenture, each with respect to one or more series of debt securities. If there are different trustees for different series of debt securities, each trustee will be a trustee of a trust or trusts separate and apart from the trust or trusts administered by any other trustee under the applicable Indenture. Unless otherwise indicated in any applicable prospectus supplement, any action permitted to be taken by a trustee may be taken by such trustee only with respect to the one or more series of debt securities for which it is the trustee under the applicable Indenture. Any trustee under the applicable Indenture may resign or be removed with respect to one or more series of debt securities. All payments of principal of, and premium, if any, and interest on, and all registration, transfer, exchange, authentication and delivery (including authentication and delivery on original issuance of the debt securities) of, the debt securities of a series will be effected by the trustee with respect to that series at an office designated by the trustee.

 

We may maintain corporate trust relationships in the ordinary course of business with the trustee. The trustee shall have and be subject to all the duties and responsibilities specified with respect to an Indenture trustee under the TIA. Subject to the provisions of the TIA, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers vested in it by the applicable Indenture at the request of any holder of debt securities, unless offered satisfactory indemnity by the holder against the costs, expense and liabilities which might be incurred thereby.

 

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Under the TIA, each Indenture is deemed to contain limitations on the right of the trustee, should it become a creditor of our company, to obtain payment of claims in some cases or to realize on certain property received in respect of any such claim as security or otherwise. The trustee may engage in other transactions with us. If it acquires any conflicting interest under the TIA relating to any of its duties with respect to the debt securities, however, it must eliminate the conflict or resign as Trustee.


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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

 

The following is a description of our capital stock and a summary of the rights of our stockholders and provisions pertaining to indemnification of our directors and officers.  You should also refer to our Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Third Amended and Restated Bylaws, which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and to Delaware law.

 

General

 

The Company has an authorized capitalization of 200,000,000 shares of capital stock, consisting of 190,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.00005 per share, and 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share.  As of August 19, 2019, we have a total of 2,272,328 shares of our common stock reserved and remaining to be issued for grants of options and restricted stock awards under our stock plans.  As of August 19, 2019, there were 24,021,757 shares of common stock, and no shares of preferred stock outstanding. As of such date, there were 95 holders of record of common stock.

 

Common Stock

 

Subject to the prior or special rights of holders of shares of preferred stock:

 

Dividends.  The holders of shares of common stock are entitled to any dividends that may be declared by our board of directors out of legally available funds;

 

Liquidation, Dissolution or Winding Up.  In the event of a liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Company, the holders of shares of our common stock are entitled upon liquidation to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of liabilities and the satisfaction of the liquidation preferences of any outstanding shares of preferred stock;

 

Redemption.  The holders of shares of our common stock are not subject to, or entitled to the benefits of, any redemption or sinking fund provision;

 

Conversion. No holder of common stock has the right to convert or exchange any such shares with or into any other shares of capital stock of the Company;

 

Preemptive Rights.  No holder of common stock has preemptive rights; and

 

Voting. Each share of common stock entitles the holder thereof to one vote, in person or by proxy, on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders generally.  Voting is non-cumulative. The outstanding shares of our common stock are fully paid and non-assessable.  Except as specifically provided in the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”) or in the Company’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, the affirmative vote required for stockholder action shall be that of a majority of the shares present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting (as counted for purposes of determining the existence of a quorum at the meeting).  Directors are elected by a plurality of the votes cast in the election.

 

Preferred Stock

 

The following description of the terms of the preferred stock sets forth the general terms and provisions of the preferred stock to which any prospectus supplement may relate. Other terms of any series of the preferred stock offered by any prospectus supplement will be described in that prospectus supplement.  The description of the provisions of the preferred stock set forth below and in any applicable prospectus supplement does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to our certificate of incorporation and the certificate of designations relating to each series of the preferred stock.  The certificate of designations will be filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference in the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part at or prior to the time of the issuance of each new series of preferred stock.

 

The preferred stock may be issued from time to time by our board of directors as shares of one or more classes or series. Subject to the provisions of our certificate of incorporation and limitations prescribed by law, our board of directors is expressly authorized to adopt resolutions to issue the shares, to fix the number of shares, to change the number of shares constituting any series and to provide for or change the voting powers, designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights, qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, including dividend rights (including whether dividends are cumulative), dividend rates, terms of redemption (including sinking fund provisions), redemption prices, conversion rights and liquidation preferences of the shares constituting any class or series of the preferred stock, in each case without any action or vote by the holders of common stock.

 

The issuance of shares of preferred stock, or the issuance of rights to purchase shares of preferred stock, could be used to discourage an unsolicited acquisition proposal. For instance, the issuance of a series of preferred stock might impede a business combination by including class voting rights that would enable the holders to block such a transaction; or the issuance might facilitate a business combination by including voting rights that would provide a required percentage vote of the stockholders. In addition, under some circumstances, the issuance of preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power of the holders of the common stock. Although our board of directors is required to make any determination to issue preferred stock based on its judgment as to the best interests of our stockholders, the board of directors could act in a manner that would discourage an acquisition attempt or other

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transaction that some or a majority of the stockholders might believe to be in their best interests or in which stockholders might receive a premium for their stock over the then market price of the stock. The board of directors does not currently intend to seek stockholder approval prior to any issuance of currently authorized stock, unless otherwise required by law or the rules of any market on which our securities are traded.

 

The preferred stock shall have the dividend, liquidation, redemption and voting rights set forth in a prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of the preferred stock. Reference is made to the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of the preferred stock offered by the prospectus supplement for specific terms, including:

 

 

the designation and stated value per share of such preferred stock and the number of shares offered;

 

the amount of liquidation preference per share;

 

the initial public offering price at which the preferred stock will be issued;

 

the dividend rate or method of calculation, the dates on which dividends shall be payable, the form of dividend payment and the dates from which dividends shall begin to cumulate, if any;

 

any redemption or sinking fund provisions;

 

any conversion or exchange rights; and

 

any additional voting, dividend, liquidation, redemption, sinking fund and other rights, preferences, privileges, limitations and restrictions.

 

The preferred stock will, when issued, be fully paid and nonassessable and new series of preferred stock will not have preemptive rights. The rights of the holders of each series of the preferred stock will be subordinate to the rights of our general creditors.

 

Certain Anti-Takeover Effects of Certain Provisions of the Company’s Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, Third Amended and Restated Bylaws and the Delaware General Corporation Law

 

The provisions of Delaware law and our Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Third Amended and Restated Bylaws may have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another party from acquiring control of our Company in a coercive manner as described below.  These provisions, summarized below, are expected to discourage and prevent coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are designed to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of our Company to first negotiate with our board of directors.  They are also intended to provide our management with the flexibility to enhance the likelihood of continuity and stability if our board of directors determines that a takeover is not in our best interests or the best interests of our stockholders.  These provisions, however, could have the effect of discouraging attempts to acquire us, which could deprive our stockholders of opportunities to sell their shares of common stock at prices higher than prevailing market prices. We believe that the benefits of these provisions, including increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure our Company, outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging takeover proposals, because negotiation of takeover proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.

 

Section 203 of the DGCL may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of the Company.  We are a Delaware corporation subject to Section 203 of the DGCL. Under Section 203, certain “business combinations” between a Delaware corporation and an “interested stockholder” are prohibited for a three-year period following the date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, unless:

 

 

the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder was approved by the board of directors of the corporation before such stockholder became an interested stockholder;

 

upon consummation of the transaction that resulted in such stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding (but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder) those shares owned (a) by directors who are also officers and (b) by employee stock plans in which the employees do not have a confidential right to tender stock held by the plan in a tender or exchange offer; or

 

the business combination is approved by the board of directors of the corporation and authorized at a meeting, and not by written consent, by two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock which is not owned by the interested stockholder.

 

The three-year prohibition also does not apply to some business combinations proposed by an interested stockholder following the announcement or notification of an extraordinary transaction involving the corporation and a person who had not been an interested stockholder during the previous three years or who became an interested stockholder with the approval of a majority of the corporation’s directors.

 

Under the DGCL, the term “business combination” is defined generally to include mergers or consolidations between the corporation or its majority-owned subsidiary and an interested stockholder, transactions with an interested stockholder involving the assets of the corporation or its majority-owned subsidiaries, and transactions that increase an interested stockholder’s percentage ownership of stock. The term “interested stockholder” is defined generally as those stockholders who become beneficial owners of 15% or more of the corporation’s voting stock, together with the affiliates or associates of that stockholder.

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Our Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Third Amended and Restated Bylaws provide for

 

 

Election and Removal of Directors; Classified Board.  Our Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and our Third Amended and Restated Bylaws contain provisions that establish specific procedures for appointing and removing members of the board of directors.  Our directors are elected by plurality vote. Vacancies and newly created directorships on our board of directors may be filled only by a majority of the directors then serving on the board and our directors may be removed by our stockholders only for cause and our directors serve staggered three year terms.

 

Special Stockholder Meetings.   Under our Third Amended and Restated Bylaws, only a majority of the entire number of our directors may call special meetings of stockholders.

 

Requirements for Advance Notification of Stockholder Nominations and Proposals.  Our Third Amended and Restated Bylaws establish advance notice procedures with respect to stockholder proposals and the nomination of candidates for election as directors.

 

No Stockholder Action by Written Consent.  Our Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation eliminates the right of stockholders to act by written consent without a meeting.

 

No Cumulative Voting.  Our Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Third Amended and Restated Bylaws do not provide for cumulative voting in the election of directors.  Cumulative voting allows a minority stockholder to vote a portion or all of its shares for one or more candidates for seats on the board of directors.  Without cumulative voting, a minority stockholder will not be able to gain as many seats on our board of directors based on the number of shares of our stock the stockholder holds as the stockholder would be able to gain if cumulative voting were permitted.  The absence of cumulative voting makes it more difficult for a minority stockholder to gain a seat on our board of directors to influence our board of director’s decision regarding a takeover.

 

Forum for Adjudication of Disputes.  Our Third Amended and Restated Bylaws designate the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware as the sole and exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Company, any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer or employee of the Company to the Company or its stockholders, any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine.

 

The provisions described above are intended to promote continuity and stability in the composition of our board of directors and in the policies formulated by the board, and to discourage some types of transactions that may involve an actual or threatened change of control.  We expect these provisions would reduce our vulnerability to unsolicited acquisition attempts as well as discourage some tactics that may be used in proxy fights.  Such provisions, however, could discourage others from making tender offers for our shares and, as a consequence, may also inhibit increases in the market price of our common stock that could result from actual or rumored takeover attempts.  These provisions could also operate to prevent changes in our management.

 

Indemnification of Directors and Officers

 

Delaware General Corporation Law. Consistent with Section 145(a) of the DGCL, Rosetta Stone may indemnify and, in certain cases, must indemnify, any person who was or is made a party to any action by reason of the fact that he or she is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the Company, or is or was serving at the request of Rosetta Stone as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, (1) in the case of a non-derivative action, against judgments, fines, amounts paid in settlement, and reasonable expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by him or her as a result of such action, and (2) in the case of a derivative action, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), if in either type of action he or she acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Company.

 

This indemnification does not apply, (1) in a derivative action, to matters as to which it is adjudged that the director, officer, employee or agent is liable to Rosetta Stone, unless upon court order it is determined that, in view of all the circumstances of the case and despite such adjudication of liability, he or she is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for expenses, and (2) in a non-derivative action, to any criminal proceeding in which such person had reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful.

 

Certificate of Incorporation.  Our Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation provides that a director of Rosetta Stone shall not be personally liable to Rosetta Stone or its stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except for liability (1) for any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to Rosetta Stone or its stockholders, (2) for acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law, (3) under Section 174 of the DGCL or (4) for any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.  If the DGCL is amended to authorize the further elimination or limitation of the liability of directors, then the liability of a director of Rosetta Stone, in addition to the limitation on personal liability described above, shall be limited to the fullest extent permitted by the amended DGCL. Additionally, the Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation provides that Rosetta Stone will indemnify its officers and directors to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL.

 

Bylaws.  Our Third Amended and Restated Bylaws generally provide for indemnification, to the fullest extent authorized by the DGCL, of its officers and directors and persons serving at the request of Rosetta Stone in such capacities for other business organizations against all expenses (including attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement) actually and reasonably incurred by reason of his or her position with Rosetta Stone or such other business organizations.  In addition, the Third Amended and

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Restated Bylaws provide that Rosetta Stone may provide indemnification to employees and agents of Rosetta Stone to the extent not prohibited by the DGCL.

 

Insurance; Indemnification Agreements.  The Company maintains directors’ and officers’ liability insurance which provides for payment, on behalf of the directors and officers of the Company and its subsidiaries, of certain losses of such persons (other than matters uninsurable under law) arising from claims, including claims arising under the Securities Act, for acts or omissions by such persons while acting as directors or officers of the Company and/or its subsidiaries, as the case may be.

 

The Company has entered into indemnification agreements with its directors and certain of its officers.  Generally, such agreements provide that the Company shall indemnify each such officer and director to the fullest extent permitted by law if such officer or director is a party to or threatened to be made a party to any proceeding (including a proceeding by or in the right of the Company to procure a judgment in its favor) against all expenses, judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by such officer or director in connection with the proceeding if the officer or director acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Company and, in a criminal proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful.

 

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers or persons controlling the Company pursuant to the foregoing provisions, the Company has been informed that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as express in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

 

Transfer Agent and Registrar

 

The transfer agent and registrar for the common stock is Broadridge Corporate Issuer Solutions, Inc.

 


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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

 

We may issue warrants to purchase our senior debt securities, subordinated debt securities, common stock or preferred stock.  Warrants may be issued independently or together with any other securities and may be attached to, or separate from, such securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and a warrant agent. In addition to this summary, you should refer to the warrant agreement, including the forms of warrant certificate representing the warrants, relating to the specific warrants being offered for the complete terms of the warrant agreement and the warrants. That warrant agreement, together with the terms of warrant certificate and warrants, will be filed with the SEC in connection with the offering of the specific warrants.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of any series of warrants in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered, including, where applicable, the following:

 

 

the title of such warrants;

 

the aggregate number of such warrants;

 

the price or prices at which such warrants will be issued;

 

the currency or currencies, in which the price of such warrants will be payable;

 

the securities or other rights, including rights to receive payment in cash or securities based on the value, rate or price of one or more specified commodities, currencies, securities or indices, or any combination of the foregoing, purchasable upon exercise of such warrants;

 

the price at which and the currency or currencies in which the securities or other rights purchasable upon exercise of such warrants may be purchased;

 

the date on which the right to exercise such warrants shall commence and the date on which such right shall expire;

 

the circumstances, if any, which will cause the warrants to be deemed to be automatically exercised;

 

the minimum or maximum amount of such warrants which may be exercised at any one time;

 

the anti-dilution provisions of such warrants;

 

the redemption or call provisions of such warrants;

 

provisions regarding changes to or adjustments in the exercise price;

 

the designation and terms of the securities with which such warrants are issued and the number of such warrants issued with each such security;

 

the date on and after which such warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;

 

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

a discussion of any material United States federal income tax considerations; and

 

any other material terms of such warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of such warrants.

 

Until they exercise their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon exercise, and will not be entitled to:

 

 

receive payments of principal of (or premium, if any, on) or interest, if any, on any debt securities purchasable upon exercise;

 

receive dividend payments, if any, with respect to any underlying securities; or

 

exercise the voting rights of any common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon exercise.


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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

 

As specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may issue units consisting of one or more of the following: senior debt securities, subordinated debt securities, shares of common stock or preferred stock, warrants or any combination of such securities.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe:

 

 

the terms of the units and of any of our senior debt securities, subordinated debt securities, common shares, preferred shares or warrants comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances the securities comprising the units may be traded separately;

 

a description of the terms of any unit agreement governing the units;

 

a description of the provisions for the payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units; and

 

if applicable, a discussion of any material United States federal income tax considerations.

 


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LEGAL MATTERS

 

Unless otherwise specified in a prospectus supplement accompanying this prospectus, the validity of the securities offered by this prospectus will be passed upon by Hogan Lovells US LLP, New York, NY.

 

EXPERTS

 

The financial statements incorporated in this Prospectus by reference from the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, and the effectiveness of Rosetta Stone Inc’s internal control over financial reporting have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their reports, which are incorporated herein by reference. Such financial statements have been so incorporated in reliance upon the reports of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.


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PART II

 

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14.  Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

 

The following table sets forth the estimated expenses (other than underwriting discounts and commissions) to be incurred by the Company in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities registered under this registration statement.

 

SEC registration fee

 

$

24,240

 

 

Printing expenses

 

 

20,000

 

*

Legal fees and expenses

 

 

75,000

 

*

FINRA filing fee

 

 

20,000

 

*

Accounting fees and expenses

 

 

75,000

 

*

Miscellaneous expenses

 

 

30,760

 

*

Total

 

$

250,000

 

*

 

 

 

* Estimated solely for the purposes of this Item. Actual expenses may be more or less, depending on the nature of the offering and the type of security.

 

Item 15.  Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

 

The discussion under the heading “Description of Capital Stock — Indemnification of Directors and Officers” in the prospectus is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

 

Item 16.  Exhibits.

 

The exhibits listed in the Exhibit Index are filed as part of this Registration statement.

 

Exhibit

Number

 

Description

**1.1

 

Form of Underwriting Agreement

3.1

 

Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation.

3.2

 

Third Amended and Restated Bylaws.

4.1

 

Specimen certificate evidencing shares of common stock.

**4.2

 

Certificate of Designation, Rights and Preferences of the Preferred Stock

†4.3

 

Form of Senior Indenture of Rosetta Stone Inc.

†4.4

 

Form of Subordinated Indenture of Rosetta Stone Inc.

**4.5

 

Form of Senior Note.

**4.6

 

Form of Subordinated Note.

**4.7

 

Form of Warrant Agreement.

**4.8

 

Form of Warrant Certificate.

†5.1

 

Opinion of Hogan Lovells US LLP.

†23.1

 

Consent of Deloitte & Touche LLP.

†23.2

 

Consent of Hogan Lovells US LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1).

†24.1

 

Powers of Attorney (included in signature pages).

**25.1

 

Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility and Qualification with respect to the Company under the Senior Indenture.

**25.2

 

Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility and Qualification with respect to the Company under the Subordinated Indenture.

 

** To be filed, if necessary, subsequent to the effectiveness of this registration statement by an amendment to this registration statement or incorporated by reference pursuant to a Current Report on Form 8-K or other SEC filing in connection with an offering of securities.

 

† Previously filed.

 

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Item 17.  Undertakings.

 

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

 

(i)

to include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act;

 

 

(ii)

to reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement.  Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

 

(iii)

to include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement.

 

Provided, however, that paragraphs (1)(i), (1)(ii) and (1)(iii) above do not apply if the registration statement is on Form S-1, Form S-3, Form SF-3 or Form F-3, and the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by (1)(i), (1)(ii) and (1)(iii) is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or, as to a registration statement on Form S-3, Form SF-3 or Form F-3, is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

 

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

 

(i) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

(ii) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

(i)        Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

(ii)      Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

(iii)    The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

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(iv)    Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

(6) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(7) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable.  In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

(8) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that:

 

(1) For purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of this registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in a form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of this registration statement as of the time it was declared effective.

 

(2) For the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(9) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the SEC under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 


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SIGNATURES AND POWER OF ATTORNEY

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3/A and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the County of Arlington, Commonwealth of Virginia, on August 22, 2019.

 

 

Rosetta Stone Inc.

 

 

 

By:

/s/ A. JOHN HASS III

 

A.John Hass III

 

Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated:

 

Signature

 

Title

 

Date

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ A. JOHN HASS III

 

Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board

 

August 22, 2019

A. John Hass III

 

(Principal Executive Officer)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ THOMAS M. PIERNO

 

Chief Financial Officer

 

August 22, 2019

Thomas M. Pierno

 

(Principal Financial Officer)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ M. SEAN HARTFORD

 

Vice President, Controller and Principal Accounting Officer

 

August 22, 2019

M. Sean Hartford

 

(Principal Accounting Officer)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*

 

Director

 

August 22, 2019

Patrick W. Gross

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*

 

Director

 

August 22, 2019

Laurence Franklin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*

 

Director

 

August 22, 2019

David P. Nierenberg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*

 

Director

 

August 22, 2019

Steven P. Yankovich

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*

 

Director

 

August 22, 2019

Jessie Woolley-Wilson

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*

 

Director

 

August 22, 2019

George A. Logue

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*By: /s/ Sean J. Klein

Sean J. Klein

Attorney-in-fact

 

 

 

 

 

 

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